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The future of Croatia's natural gas supply from the perspective of import infrastructure Budućnost opskrbe hrvatskog tržišta plinom s motrišta uvozne infrastrukture


After successful realization of the first natural gas import to Croatia back in 1978, three other projects for additional supply were contemplated in the past thirty years, but never realized: import of Algerian gas (negotiations lasted from 1980 to 1988), the first LNG terminal project (1990 -1995); the second LNG terminal project (activities commenced in 2003). Unfortunaytely, none of them materialized. Along with these projects, after the year 2000, several international projects were initiated: Nabucco Pipeline, South Stream, Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) with Adriatic Ionic Pipeline (IAP) as a branch line. Each of the above projects, if implemented, could provide additional gas supply to the Croatian gas market. However, the problem is timing. All the above projects have long completion time. On the other hand, Croatia might be confronted with shortage of natural gas after 2014 when the import agreement concluded between INA and ENI expires. In addition, the government must amend the existing energy strategy or design a new strategy. Moreover, in the context of imminent EU membership in July 2013, with significant effects on further opening of the energy market. Such numerous committments and milestones require quick response by the government, action plans and reorganization of energy sector within the Ministry of Economy. Lessons learnt from the past cast certain doubts on suitability of the existing infrastructure for import of additional volumes of gas for domestic market. The conceptual solution offered by experts from Plinacro d.o.o., Croatian natural gas transport system operator TSO (in the form of regasification vessels and floating LNG terminal), passed without any reaction, even from the relevant ministry. The LNG terminal project on the island of Krk has not been entirely abandoned. Formally, in 2013 the consortium of investors should recnosider the investment and possible continuation of the project. However, in the meantime natural gas market has undergone significant changes: economic crisis caused decline in natural gas consumption in Croatia and elsewhere; the existing LNG terminals in Europe operate with minimum capacity. Planned LNG terminal on the island of Krk was dimensioned to ensure export of two-thirds of its capacity to other European markets. Today, European market has sufficient natural gas supply, fed through new additional infrastructure such as the North Stream. In addition, it remains to be seen whether Europe will see the boost of natural gas exploitation from unconventional reserves as it happened in the United States.%Nakon uspješne realizacije prvog uvoza prirodnog plina za hrvatsko tržište, u dalekoj 1978. Godini, tijekom proteklih tridesetak godina su osmišljena, ali ne I realizirana, tri projekta za opskrbu dodatnim količinama; uvoz alžirskog plina (pregovori su trajali od 1980. Do 1988.), prvi projekt izgradnje terminala za uvoz ukapljenog prirodnog plina (1990. Do 1995.), drugi projekt izgradnje terminala (aktivnosti započele 2003.). Na žalost, niti jedan nije ostvaren.rnUz te projekte, nakon 2000. Su nicali međunarodni regionalni projekti; Nabucco Pipeline, Južni tok (South Stream), Transjadranski plinovod I Jadransko-Jonski odvojak (Trans Adriatic Pipeline and lonic-Adriatic Pipeline). Svaki od tih projekata, pod uvjetima da se realiziraju, mogao bi biti nositelj dodatne opskrbe plinom hrvatskog tržišta. Ti, kao I noviji projekti, gledajući potrebe hrvatskog tržišta u skoroj budućnosti, (2014.), kada istječe ugovor između INE I ENI-a o uvozu plina, svi su odreda zakašnjeli. Uz to, država mora osnažiti postojeću ili donijeti novu Energetsku strategiju. To tim više što bi RH trebala u 2013. Postati punopravna članica Europske Unije a energetsko tržište biti potpuno otvoreno. Te zgusnute obveze I termini nameću vladi žuran postupak za reorganizacijom energetskog sektora u nadležnom ministarstvu. Iskustvo nalaže skepsu oko podobnosti postojeće infrastrukture za uvoz dodatnih količina plina za domaće tržište. Idejno rješenje, ponuđeno od strane stručnjaka tvrtke Plinacro za isporuku ukapljenog prirodnog plina na način da se u prvoj fazi izgrade instalacije za privez metanijera I uređaji za istovar ukapljenog prirodnog plina, a u drugoj fazi plutajući terminal, prošlo je bez odaziva. Pogotovo u nadležnom ministarstvu. Formalno, u 2013., konzorcij za LNG terminal na Krku razmotrit će nastavak aktivnosti za gradnju terminala. No, u međuvremenu je došlo do velikih promjena na tržištu plina; uslijed krize potrošnja plina pada, a postojeći europski LNG terminali u posljednje dvije do tri godine, rade s minimalnim kapacitetom. Planirani terminal na otoku Krku je bio dimenzioniran da s dvije trećine kapaciteta opslužuje strana tržišta. Danas su ta tržišta, pogotovo nakon puštanja u rad neke infrastrukture za europsku opskrbu kao što je Sjeverni tok, opskrbljena s dostatnim količinama plina, a u skoroj budućnosti će se vidjeti hoće li se u Europi ponoviti američki uspjeh u razradi I privođenju proizvodnji nekonvencionalnih rezervi plina.......

【作者名称】: S. Kolundzic
【关 键 词】: natural gas supply, liquefied natural gas - LNG, unconventional gas reserves, diversification of sources and routs of supply
【期刊名称】: Oil
【期刊论文数据库】: [DBS_Articles_01]
【期刊论文编号】: 108,463,384
【摘要长度】: 5,065
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